In 2020, Viet Nam was one of the 30 highest-burden countries globally with tuberculosis (TB) and multi-drug resistant TB, whereas Cambodia was one of the 30 highest-burden countries with TB. While both nations have made significant progress in reducing TB rates in recent years, they lack the financial resources needed to eliminate TB as a public health problem.
This report is an annual overview of activities led and implemented by the Migration Health Division of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in 2020, in partnership with Member States, United Nations agencies and other partners in the international community, to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, meet the operational challenges and advance understanding of migration health, encourage socioeconomic development through migration, and work towards ensuring respect of the human dignity and well-being of migrants.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is a key player in responding to humanitarian and public health emergencies as well as supporting health system recovery and resilience. Health support in emergencies is an essential part of IOM’s humanitarian mandate, and recognized by the Organization’s Migration Crisis Operational Framework as one of the 15 sectors of assistance to address before, during and after crises.
Reliable information on the health vulnerabilities and resilience factors of cross-border migrants and associated possible preventive measures is lacking. To remedy this gap and thereby facilitate the development of evidence-informed policy and programme development, this study was undertaken to assess the health vulnerabilities of Nepali migrants to India.
This issue of the Bulletin features peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, reports, and commentaries focusing on some of IOM’s migration health programmes such as mental health and psychosocial support, vaccination, tuberculosis screening, and public health emergency management.
Two interviews are included in the current episode of the audio podcast: one on the vaccination programme for US-bound refugees globally and the other on migration health governance in Africa.
The spread of DR-TB strains threatens recent gains in global TB control, with evidence that the majority of patients with rifampicin-resistant (RR-TB) or multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) TB acquire their infection through person-to-person transmission. Inadequate diagnostic and treatment options have hampered an effective global response. The use of Xpert MTB/RIF as a rapid and sensitive frontline TB detection test has been shown to improve patient outcomes and is cost-effective, but data for RR/MDR-TB are lacking; partly hampered by the poor treatment options available in the past.
The UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development puts people at the center of all actions, particularly the most marginalized and disempowered, for the realization of societies that are more equitable and inclusive. It also acknowledges that migration carries a development potential, owing to migrants’ intellectual, cultural, human and financial capital, and their active participation in society. Being and staying healthy is a fundamental precondition for migrants to work, be productive, and contribute to the social and economic development of communities of origin and destination.
The role of migrants and mobile populations (MMPs) in the spread and control of HIV is increasingly being recognized and understood. While migration does not automatically equal HIV vulnerability, and not all MMPs are at increased risk of HIV as a result of their mobility, in many contexts MMPs are exposed to a unique set of sociocultural, economic, and environmental factors that render them more vulnerable to HIV including lack of access to health services, information, and environments that are conducive to engaging in high-risk behavior.