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Limitations of social protections of migrant families in Japan exposed by COVID-19: The case of Nepalese women

The right to protection from violence should be conferred upon all people regardless of their nationality. However, migrant women in Japan face exceptional risks, including that of domestic violence. This paper focuses on the vulnerability of Nepalese women, most often in Japan as dependents of their husbands, who are engaged as cooks in the ubiquitous Indo-Nepali restaurants. Shut out of the male-dominated support networks within the Nepalese community, they are forced to rely on Japanese state support in a time of crisis.

Imported and locally transmitted mild SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia cases in Japan

Here, we describe two mild SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia cases. One was imported from Wuhan, and the other was locally transmitted in Japan without recent travel to China. In both cases, lower respiratory tract symptoms were observed first, and high fever progressed in about one week. The laboratory findings revealed normal WBC and CRP despite apparent lung infiltrations, and typical observations on CT imaging were important diagnostic clues. In the domestic endemic situation, a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical course, and laboratory and radiological findings was required for diagnosis.

In the age of COVID-19 – Indian restaurants and the Indian cooks in Japan

This article explores the impact of COVID-19 on restaurants owned by Indian migrants in Japan as they struggle with financial and occupational risks. The owners try to balance their business interests with their relationships and with the Indian community in Tokyo and their desire to be good citizens by complying with pandemic guidelines. The cooks, who were brought to Japan by the owners, are in a more precarious position, having lost work hours and income, but without the ability to look elsewhere for work.

Minimizing disease spread on a quarantined cruise ship: A model of COVID-19 with asymptomatic infections

On February 5 the Japanese government ordered the passengers and crew on the Diamond Princess to start a two week quarantine after a former passenger tested positive for COVID-19. During the quarantine the virus spread rapidly throughout the ship. By February 20, there were 651 cases. We model this quarantine with a SEIR model including asymptomatic infections with differentiated shipboard roles for crew and passengers.

Clinical course of a critically ill patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Although several studies have reported on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), clinical course of the most severe cases requiring treatment in ICU have been insufficiently reported. A 73-year-old man traveling on a cruise ship with history of hypertension and dyslipidemia developed high fever, dyspnea and cough after 7 days of steroid treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in sputa polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination.

Development of genetic diagnostic methods for detection for novel coronavirus 2019(nCoV-2019) in Japan

During the emergence of novel coronavirus 2019 (nCoV) outbreak in Wuhan city, China at the end of 2019, there was movement of many airline travelers between Wuhan and Japan, suggesting that the Japanese population was at high risk of infection by the virus. Hence, we urgently developed diagnostic systems for detection of 2019 nCoV. Two nested RT-PCR and two real-time RT-PCR assays were adapted for use in Japan. As of February 8, 2020, these assays have successfully detected 25 positive cases of infection in Japan. © 2020, National Institute of Health. All rights reserved.

Adoption and impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions for COVID-19

Background: Several non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been implemented across the world to control the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Social distancing (SD) interventions applied so far have included school closures, remote working and quarantine. These measures have been shown to have large impacts on pandemic influenza transmission. However, there has been comparatively little examination of such measures for COVID-19. Methods: We examined the existing literature, and collated data, on implementation of NPIs to examine their effects on the COVID-19 pandemic so far.

Estimating the prevalence and risk of COVID-19 among international travelers and evacuees of Wuhan through modeling and case reports

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started in Wuhan, China and has spread through other provinces and countries through infected travelers. On January 23rd, 2020, China issued a quarantine and travel ban on Wuhan because travelers from Wuhan were thought to account for the majority of exported COVID-19 cases to other countries. Additionally, countries evacuated their citizens from Wuhan after institution of the travel ban. Together, these two populations account for the vast majority of the "total cases with travel history to China"as designated by the World Health Organization (WHO).

SARS-CoV-2 Genome Analysis of Japanese Travelers in Nile River Cruise

Japan has reported 26 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) linked to cruise tours on the River Nile in Egypt between March 5 and 15, 2020. Here, we characterized the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome of isolates from 10 travelers who returned from Egypt and from patients possibly associated with these travelers. We performed haplotype network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 isolates using genome-wide single-nucleotide variations.