Impact of COVID-19 induced lockdown on environmental quality in four Indian megacities Using Landsat 8 OLI and TIRS-derived data and Mamdani fuzzy logic modelling approach

Ghosh S.,
Das A.,
Hembram T.K.,
Saha S.,
Pradhan B.,
Alamri A.M.
Document Type
Source Title
Sustainability (Switzerland)


The deadly COVID-19 virus has caused a global pandemic health emergency. This COVID-19 has spread its arms to 200 countries globally and the megacities of the world were particularly affected with a large number of infections and deaths, which is still increasing day by day. On the other hand, the outbreak of COVID-19 has greatly impacted the global environment to regain its health. This study takes four megacities (Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Chennai) of India for a comprehensive assessment of the dynamicity of environmental quality resulting from the COVID-19 induced lockdown situation. An environmental quality index was formulated using remotely sensed biophysical parameters like Particulate Matters PM10 concentration, Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Different Moisture Index (NDMI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). Fuzzy-AHP, which is a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making process, has been utilized to derive the weight of the indicators and aggregation. The results showing that COVID-19 induced lockdown in the form of restrictions on human and vehicular movements and decreasing economic activities has improved the overall quality of the environment in the selected Indian cities for a short time span. Overall, the results indicate that lockdown is not only capable of controlling COVID-19 spread, but also helpful in minimizing environmental degradation. The findings of this study can be utilized for assessing and analyzing the impacts of COVID-19 induced lockdown situation on the overall environmental quality of other megacities of the world. © 2020 by the authors.

Migration angle
Region/Country (by coverage)
Index Keywords

concentration (composition); environmental quality; fuzzy mathematics; Landsat; megacity; particulate matter; public health; satellite data; viral disease; virus; Chennai; Delhi; India; Kolkata; Maharashtra; Mumbai; Tamil Nadu; West Bengal