This SADC- funded project was a regional project involving primary research conducted at the ports of Beira, Dar es Salaam, Durban and Walvis Bay. This report is a synthesis of the findings of the research from the studies conducted at each port. Those findings are based on research conducted by four teams of researchers. Each team was selected in the country where they were to conduct the research. Their respective research was presented in four different reports. A workshop involving all the teams was conducted after each report had been drafted (in October 2014). The findings of the reports and discussions at the workshop are the basis for this synthesis report.