The common personal behavior and preventive measures among 42 uninfected travelers from the Hubei province, China during COVID-19 outbreak: A cross-sectional survey in Macao SAR, China

Lio C.F.,
Cheong H.H.,
Lei C.I.,
Lo I.L.,
Yao L.,
Lam C.,
Leong I.H.
Document Type
Source Title
PeerJ Inc.


Background: The novel coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) caused over 1.7 million confirmed cases and cumulative mortality up to over 110,000 deaths worldwide as of 14 April 2020. A total of 57 Macao citizens were obligated to stay in Hubei province, China, where the highest COVID-19 prevalence was noted in the country and a “lockdown” policy was implemented for outbreak control for more than one month. They were escorted from Wuhan City to Macao via a chartered airplane organized by Macao SAR government and received quarantine for 14 days with none of the individual being diagnosed with COVID-19 by serial RNA tests from the nasopharyngeal specimens and sera antibodies. It was crucial to identify common characteristics among these 57 uninfected individuals. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted to extract information such as behavior, change of habits and preventive measures. Results: A total of 42 effective questionnaires were analyzed after exclusion of 14 infants and children with age under fifteen as ineligible for the survey and missing of one questionnaire, with a response rate of 97.7% (42 out of 43). The proportion of female composed more than 70% of this group of returners. The main reason for visiting Hubei in 88.1% of respondents was to visit relatives. Over 88% of respondents did not participate in high-risk activities due to mobility restriction. All (100%) denied contact with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases. Comparison of personal hygiene habits before and during disease outbreak showed a significant increase in practice including wearing a mask when outdoor (16.7% and 95.2%, P < 0.001) and often wash hands with soap or liquid soap (85.7% and 100%, P = 0.031). Copyright 2020 Lio et al.

Migration angle
Region/Country (by coverage)
Index Keywords

soap; adolescent; adult; aged; Article; behavior change; China; cleaning; clinical article; comorbidity; coronavirus disease 2019; cross-sectional study; crowding (area); female; habit; hand washing; high risk population; human; infection prevention; male; personal hygiene; quarantine; quarantine station; questionnaire; real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; throat culture; travel