Clinical course of a critically ill patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
Although several studies have reported on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), clinical course of the most severe cases requiring treatment in ICU have been insufficiently reported. A 73-year-old man traveling on a cruise ship with history of hypertension and dyslipidemia developed high fever, dyspnea and cough after 7 days of steroid treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in sputa polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination. His respiratory function deteriorated despite treatments with lopinavir/ritonavir, oseltamivir, azithromycin and meropenem at a regional hospital. He was intubated and transferred to the ICU in the tertiary university hospital on day 10 (ICU day 1). Interferon beta-1b subcutaneous injection was initiated immediately to enhance anti-viral therapy, and favipiravir on ICU day 10 upon availability. Progression of organ dysfunctions necessitated inhalation of nitrogen oxide for respiratory dysfunction, noradrenaline for cardiovascular dysfunction and continuous renal replacement therapy for renal dysfunction. His blood samples PCR also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, indicating viremia, concomitantly with elevated IL-6 levels. VV-ECMO was initiated after sudden exacerbation of respiratory dysfunction on ICU day 7 to maintain oxygenation. The sustained excessive inflammatory cytokines in the present case might have led to the exacerbation of the disease, requiring vigorous organ support therapies to allow for survival and recovery from the rapid progression of multiple organ dysfunctions and severe respiratory failure. © 2020, The Japanese Society for Artificial Organs.
azithromycin; favipiravir; interferon beta serine; interleukin 6; lopinavir plus ritonavir; meropenem; oseltamivir; aged; Article; blood sampling; body temperature measurement; bronchoscopy; case report; clinical article; coronavirus disease 2019; critically ill patient; disease course; follow up; hospital admission; human; intensive care unit; male; oxygen therapy; oxygenation; patient transport; pneumonia; positive pressure ventilation; priority journal; Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; tertiary care center; thorax radiography; university hospital; viremia; Betacoronavirus; Coronavirus infection; critical illness; disease exacerbation; pandemic; virus pneumonia; Aged; Betacoronavirus; Coronavirus Infections; Critical Illness; Disease Progression; Humans; Male; Pandemics; Pneumonia, Viral